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This article provides you a brief explanation of some open internet standards and related web technologies that are reshaping the business value chain. Most of these affect application architecture and back end systems integration, rather than presentation or user interface.

.NET is a set of Microsoft software technologies for connecting information, people, systems, and devices. It enables a high level of software integration through the use of XML Web services—small, discrete, building-block applications that connect to each other as well as to other, larger applications over the Internet.

An applet is a little application. Prior to the World Wide Web, the built-in writing and drawing programs that came with Windows were sometimes called "applets." On the Web, using Java, the object-oriented programming language, an applet is a small program that can be sent along with a Web page to a user. Java applets can perform interactive animations, immediate calculations, or other simple tasks without having to send a user request back to the server.

JavaBeans is an object-oriented programming interface from Sun Microsystems that lets you build re-useable applications or program building blocks called component that can be deploy in a network on any major operating system platform. Like Java applet, JavaBeans components (or "Bean") can be used to give World Wide Web pages (or other applications) interactive capabilities such as computing interest rates or varying page content based on user or browser characteristics.

Certificate Authorities:
These are companies that distribute certificates. Once a client has received a certificate during communicating with a server, they verify the integrity of that certificate with the issuing certificate authority. Typically the client applications have a list of 'trusted' Certificate Authorities.

Certificate Utiliser:
An entity that has an SSL certificate registered to it.

The Common Object Request Broker Architecture, is the Object Management Group's answer to the need for interoperability among the rapidly proliferating number of hardware and software products available today. Simply stated, CORBA allows applications to communicate with one another no matter where they are located or who has designed them, providing networking transparency. SunSoft's JAVA provides a portable object infrastructure that works on every major operating system, providing implementation transparency.

The Windows Distributed interNet Applications Architecture is an enabling infrastructure technology for the Digital Nervous System, a key initiative at Microsoft® that relies on connected PCs and integrated software to make information flow rapidly and accurately. Both of these are marketing constructs based on the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM), leveraging the Windows NT Server environment including; Microsoft® Transaction Server (MTS), Microsoft® Internet Information Server (IIS), and Microsoft® Message Queue.

Devised 'gif' meaning Graphic Interchange Format, this is a method of storing a picture or graphic image in a computer file, originally by CompuServe/HR Block.

Hyper Text Mark-up Language involves the placing coding or tags within a text file for designing web pages for the Internet world-wide web.

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is a method of connecting to the Internet through the world-wide web.

IP Address:
The interface of each computer on the Internet is identified by a unique number known as its 'IP Address'. The names (e.g. are translated to the correct IP Address using DNS (Domain Name Servers). When two computers communicate across the Internet, they address/identify each other via their IP addresses.

This is an automated e-mail system that allows file transfers, joining and leaving e-mail lists, and automatically sending e-mail to many members in one go.

Meta Author:
This is a meta tag used typically by companies and consultants promoting their work with the HTML page.

Meta Description:
A meta description is a meta tag that helps search engines to locate and index the page. This value represents a summary of the web page.

Meta Generator:
This meta tag is automatically inserted into documents by HTML editor programs. It specifies as a value the name of the editor that generated the code.

Meta Keywords:
A meta keyword is a meta tag with a keyword value used to help enable search engines to search and index. The keywords are represented in a comma-separated list of words relating to the web page.

Meta Refresh:
A meta refresh is a meta tag with a refresh value to automatically direct visitors to a new page after a specified number of seconds. It is typically used to redirect someone from a page that has moved or to display a brief message.

Meta Tag:
The meta element is a tag used in identifying meta information on any given web page. The commonly used meta information is "refresh", "keywords", "description", "PICS identification", "author", "generator", "content-type", "expires", "transition", and "duration". Web browsers ignore this meta element usage when they display a page.

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design is revolutionising the way system developers and users conceive and build systems. Use of object-oriented techniques has been shown to decrease the time and money spent on systems development projects and increase the quality of the resulting systems. This in turn increases user satisfaction. Object systems: A system used to model/simulate: attributes, behaviour, and communications of objects.

Perl is a scripting language, using Perl interpreter; acronym for Practical Extraction and Report Language commonly used for creating Internet world-wide Web CGI (Common gateway Interfaces).

Personal Home Page tools (PHP) is a script language and interpreter similar to JavaScript and Microsoft's VB Script. This is a cross-platform alternative to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP) technology. As with ASP, the PHP script is embedded within a Web page along with its HTML

PICS Generation:
The Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) is a system designed to associate categorising labels with document content. The system originated as a method to help control access to questionable content, but can also be used to label and classify other types of documents such as code signing, privacy, and intellectual property rights management.

Packet Internet or Inter-Network Groper (Ping) is a basic Internet program that lets you verify that a particular IP address exists and whether it can accept requests. The verb 'ping' refers to the act of using the PING utility or command. Ping is used diagnostically to ensure that a host computer you are trying to reach is actually operating. Ping can also be used with a host that is operating to see how long it takes to get a response back. Using ping, one can learn the number form of the IP address from the symbolic domain name.

POP [e-mail]:
Acronym for Post Office Protocol which is commonly used on the Internet to allow users to get their e-mail from an Internet account using a local PC.

A servlet is a small program that runs on a server. The term was coined in the context of the Java applet, a small program that is sent as a separate file along with a Web (HTML) page. Java applets, usually intended for running on a client, can result in such services as performing a calculation for a user or positioning an image based on user interaction.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol , used for sending e-mail on the Internet.

Secure Socket Layer is a protocol primarily used to secure communications across the Internet. It uses certificates issued by Certificate Authorities to verify that a client is communicating with the right person. It adds a layer of encryption to the session in order to keep the communication private.


Swing is a set of program components for Java programmers that provide the ability to create Graphical User Interface (GUI) components, such as buttons and scroll bars, that are independent of the windowing system for specific operating system. Swing components are used with the Java Foundation Classes which provides a platform independent look-and-feel.

Method of connecting to another computer system, normally using software that controls how information transfers are made. This is the common way to login to a UNIX shell account.

Top Level Domain:
A top-level domain (TLD) is the portion of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or Internet address that identifies the general type of Internet domain, such as "com" for "commercial," "edu" for "educational," and so forth.

Wireless Markup Language:
WML (Wireless Markup Language), formerly called HDML (Handheld Devices Markup Language), is a language that allows the text portions of Web pages to be presented on cellular telephone and personal digital assistants (personal digital assistant) via wireless access. WML is part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) that is being proposed by several vendors to standards bodies. The Wireless Application Protocol works on top of standard data link protocols, such as Global System for Mobile communication, code-division multiple access, and Time Division Multiple Access, and provides a complete set of network communication programs comparable to and supportive of the Internet set of protocols. WML is an open language offered royalty-free.


The Unified Modelling Language is a language for specifying, visualising, constructing, and documenting the artefacts of software systems, as well as for business modelling and other non-software systems. The UML represents a collection of best engineering practices that have proven successful in the modelling of large and complex systems.

Uniform Resource Locator
is the fully qualified Internet address for an online connection service, e.g.,

A web server is a program that serves files in order to form web pages. Every computer on the Internet that hosts a web site must have a web server.

The Extensible Mark-up Language is an extension of HTML, and a simplification of Standard Generalised Mark-up Language (SGML), HTML's parent or super-set mark-up technology. XML will allow groups of people or organisations to create their own customised mark-up languages for exchanging information in their domain. HTML is already overburdened with dozens of interesting but often incompatible inventions from different manufacturers, because it provides only one way of describing your information.

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